Nutgrass Galingale Rhizome

[English Name]

Nutgrass Galingale Rhizome

[Chinese Name]

香附  

[Pinying Name]

Xiangfu  

[Latin Name]

Cyperi Rhizoma  

[Genera]

Cyperaceae

[Efficacy]

Qi-regulating drug

[Pictures]

Plant picture

Drug picture

 

 

[Alias]

Shasui, Huitouqing, Yejiucai, Geyechou, Digoucao  

[Source]

This crude drug is the rootstalk of Cyperus rotundus Linn. (family: Cyperaceae).

 

[Plant morphology]

This species is a perennial herb with an upright 3-edged stem. The rootstalk extends horizontally, expanded and resembling a spindle in shaped in some parts;
sometimes several of such expanded parts being joined one after another. The leaves are produced from the base of the stem; the leaf sheath is amplexicaul
(surrounding the stem); the blade is linear, 20-60cmlong, 2-5mmwide, acuminate apically, and entire marginally, with parallel veins, the main one of which is
raised on the lower side. The inflorescences are compound spikes, 3-6 ones arranged in the form of an umbrella on top of stem, each consisting of 3-10 linear
spikelets and two lines of ovate to oblong membranaceous glumes which are arranged closely and display several veins on the purplish red sides; at the base
of the spike, there exist 2-4 leaflike involucral bracts which are the same as or longer than the spike; from every glume, there occurs a flower with 3 stamens
and 3 silklike stigmas. The nut is small, oblong-obovate, 3-edged.

 

[Distribution]

This species is distributed inLiaoning,Hebei,Shandong,Shanxi,Jiangsu,Anhui,Zhejiang,Jiangxi,Fujian,Taiwan,Hubei,Hunan,Guangdong,Guangxi,Shaanxi,
Gansu,Sichuan,GuizhouandYunnan. The crude drug produced inShandongis called "Chexiangfu", and that produced inZhejiangcalled "Nanxiangfu",
both being good in quality and f
ound in all regions ofThailand.

 

[Gathering and processing]

After dug out, the rootstalk is handled with fire so that fibrous roots on it are partly removed; then it is cooked in boiling water or steamed until its core is
cooked, and dried in the sun; the resulting product is called "Maoxiangfu". After dried in the sun and 70-80% of its moisture is lost, "Maoxiangfu" is ground
and dried in the sun without foreign substances (such product is called "Xiangfumi").

 

[Characteristics]

The rootstalk is spindle-shaped, sometimes slightly crooked, 2-3cmlong, 0.5-1cmin diameter, with a brown or blackish brown surface exhibiting longitudinal
wrinkles and 6-10 raised nodes; on the nodes there exist brown hairs and root scars; as regards a rootstalk whose hairs are removed, the surface becomes
comparatively smooth, and the nodes indistinct. The rootstalk is stiff, showing a yellowish brown or reddish brown corneous fracture section when steamed
or cooked; if it is dried in the sun, its fracture section is white and mealy and shows a distinct endoderm ring, inside which are darker parts showing scattered
vascular bundle spots. This crude drug smells fragrant and tastes a bit bitter.

 

[Ecology]

It grows in wasteladroad sideditch side and field exposed to the sun.

 

[Chemical composition]

The rhizome contains glucose, fructose, starch, essential oil;

essential oil: cyperene, α-cyperone[1,2], camphene, β-pinene, 1,8-cineole, limonene, p-cymene, selinatriene, β-selinene, patchoulenone, β-cyperone, α-rotunol,
β-rotunol, cyperol, isocyperol, copadiene, epoxyguaine, cyperolone, rotundone, kobuson, isokobusone, 4α,5α-oxidoeudesm-11-en-3α-ol, sugetriol, copaene,
β
-elemene, caryophyllene, patchoulenyl acetate, sugeonyl acetate[2], α-copaene , α-bisabolene, α-gurjunene, 2-methoxy-8-methyl-1
4-naphthalenedione,
β-selinene , oxo-α-ylangen, 4,4α,5,6,7,8,-hexahydro-4α, 5-dimethyl-3-(1-methyl ethylidene)-2(3H)-naphthalenone, longipinocarvone[1],
rhamnetin-3-O-rhamnosyl(1-4)-rhamnopyranoside[2].

 

[Pharmacological activities]

1. Sedation. Korean scholars Ha [1] in the radioligand binding assay, using rat cerebral cortex membranes to test the effect of five compounds isolated from 
Cyperus rotundus rhizome ethyl acetate on γ - aminobutyric acid A receptor (GABAA ), benzo benzodiazepine receptor. Among these 5 compounds, only 
the different curcumol (a newly discovered the sesquiterpene compounds) can inhibit the combination of [3H] Ro15-1788 and enhance the combination of 
[3H] clonazepam and GABA. The results show that the different curcumol can be benzodiazepine receptor agonists, by enhancing the endogenous receptor
 ligand combination to allosteric regulate GABA neurotransmission.

2. Protective effect on the gastric mucosal. Zhu [2] modeling with ethanol-induced rat gastric ulcer, firstly the Cyperus rotundus rhizome decoction 
(1.25, 2.5, 4.0g of the original drug / kg) to rat oral. The result shows that the decoction 
has a protective effect on the ulcer.Followed by purification of Cyperus rotundus rhizome decoction on rats after subcutaneous injection (0.3 0.6g/kg) is
 equally effective. The study find that gastric motility speed is the main reason for ulcers, Cyperus rotundus rhizome decoction could delay gastric 
emptying time to reduce the incidence of ulcers.

3. To reduce blood lipid. Nagulendran, etc. [3],The divid rats into young mice group and the comparison group, the old mice group and the comparison 
group, and give them Cyperus ethanol extract 30 days respectively. The results show that the growth of glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL and 
VLDL in serum of old mice with aging significantly reduced. This revealed that Cyperus can prevent cardiovascular diseases by aging. Christina, etc. [4] 
giving mice who is in ethanol-induced liver injury Cyperus rotundus alcohol extract 28 days later, find that mice’s triacylglycerol in blood decreased 
significantly, so does to the treatment of hypertriglyceridemia.

4. Lower blood sugar. Nishikant etc [5] to test the effect of Cyperus rotundus rhizome extract treatment on diabetes with alloxan-induced hyperglycemia 
mice. After mice taking continuous oral administration of 500mg 7 days, its blood glucose significantly reduced. This is due to the 
strong scavenging capacity, antioxidant activity in vitro 1, 1diphenyl a bitter base hydrazine (DPPH), and has led to the antihyperglycemic activity.
 Oxygen free radicals and alloxan induced diabetic activity, antioxidants are very effective for diabetes. Yazdanparast etc. in vitro studies [6] also find the 
inhibition of Cyperus ethanol extract on DPPH and superoxide in rat liver homogenate, the scavenging effect on free radical, and the strong antioxidant effect.

5. Anti-bacterial and anti-inflammatory effect. Uddin et al. [7] find that the methanol extract of Cyperus rotundus rhizome significantly against to dysentery 
which caused by the rat oral castor oil. In separated parts, petroleum ether and residual methanol existing this kind of activity, and the later one existing even
 stronger activity than the control group. The ethyl acetate part wih no activity of anti-dysentery. Yu et al [8] find that Cyperus rotundus extract with concentration
 4mg/ml can effectively inhibit the adhesion of Streptococcus in painted saliva hydroxyapatite, indicating that the Cyperus rotundus extract have a preventive 
effect on dental caries caused by Streptococcus variant. Duarte et al [9] find that the Cyperus water extract has peritonitis treatment for rosary nature peritonitis, 
while no effect for ethanol extract. The antibacterial of properties of cyperus rotundus rhizome extract with five kinds of comparison bacteria to assess. The total 
flavonoids and extracted with ethyl acetate portion have significant inhibition to Salmonella enteritidis, Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus faecalis [10].

6. Anti-mutagenic activity: determination of the Salmonella typhimurium, study the anti-mutagenic activity of Cyperus water extract, the total oligomeric flavonoid 
extract, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts. The results show that all of the extracts on aflatoxin Bl (AFBI) and azides of sodium (sodium azide) have strong 
anti-mutagenic activity, 50% inhibitory concentration values (IC 50) are 15, 14 and 20g/ml [11].

 

[Clinical trial]

1.Flat Warts: ①50 cases with flat warts were treated with “Xiang Mu decoction” (Cyperus rotundus , Equisetum, Dyers Woad Leaf, Isatis radix, each30gwith water to 500ml, decocted with water for 3-5min), 1 time every night, 20min each time, each agent can be used for 3 days, 9 days for the one course. Results: 32 cases cured, 8 cases improved, 10 cases invalided[1]. ②50 cases with flat wart were treated with “Cu Zhi Qu You Liquid” (Cyperus rotundus, Isatis radix, radix sophorae tonkinensis, Equisetum each30g. With Edible vinegar500m1 Fry cook10min,left the herb residue slag temperature ) by washing the affected part for 15min in the morning and evening, one agent for 5 days. Results: The cure rate of 86%[2]. ③45 cases with verruca plana were treated with the flat verruca tincture (Cyperus rotundus500gEquisetum250gxanthium125g, lapping in meal respectively after immersion in 70% ethanol in about 10 days, after filtration ), Results: after 2 weeks treatment, the total effective rate was 91.1%[3]. ④54 cases with flat wart were treated with the proved recipe (Cyperus rotundus, Equisetum each15g, Isatis radix forsythia each30gboiled with water for two times into 1000ml ) orally, 600ml daily, 2 times a day, each time300m1, the rest 400ml liquid applied to affected area exertion, 2-3 times a day. Results: All cases can be cured for 10 days treatment[4]. ⑤50 cases were treated with Cyperus rotundus, Equisetum(each one50gdecoced with Water for 20min), 2-3 times daily, 15 times for one course. Results: after 15 days’ treatment, 39 cases cured78%), 4 cases improved (8%), 7 cases invalided(14%), the total effective rate was 86%[5].

2. Eyeball Distention: 49 cases with unexplained eyeball distention were treated with Cyperus rotundus powders (Cyperus rotundus, Chrysanthemum each15g, prunella vulgaris30g, glycyrrhiza6g), boiled with water, 1 agent daily. Results: after 4-6 agents, 46 cases cured, 2 cases improved, 1 cases was effective[6].

 

[Properties]

Taste: pungent, sweet, slightly bitter; property: neural; belong to liver, and three cavity channels.

 

[Medical and other Uses]

Function: dispersing and rectifying the depressed liver-energy, normalizing menstruation and relieving pain, preventing miscarriage.

Syndromes to be treated:, distending pain in the hypochondrium, breast tenderness, abdominal pain, belch, hernia pain, irregular menstruation, dysmenorrhea , fetal irritability.

 

[Dosage]

Oral administration: decoction, 510g, or used in pill and powder.

Topical application: in right amount, smashed and smear on the skin.

 

[Cautions]

Oral administration: decoction, 510g, or used in pill and powder.

Topical application: in right amount, smashed and smear on the skin.

 

[Traditional usage]

1. Migraine, headache

2. Scalp swelling and pain, pain at both temples, vertigo and dizziness

3. Diseases due to disorder of qi: distention and fullness of heart and abdomen, dysphagia of chest and diaphragm, belching, acid regurgitation, vomiting phlegm from the stomach, hangover, and loss of appetite

4. Depression and obstruction of chest and diaphragm due to rising of wind-qi and retention of phlegm and fluid

5. Epistaxis

6. Hematemesis

7. Hematuria

8. Anti0aboryion measuccessful gestation

9. Leukorrhea due to deficiency cold of the lower abdomen

 

 

[Toxicological studies]

Toxicity of Nutgrass Galingale Rhizome is smaller, and fed withdose ratio not exceeding 25%, rats can be tolerated, dose upto 30% to 50%caused certain animal growth inhibition[3]. LD50 of NutgrassGalingale Rhizome alcohol extractin by peritoneal injection in mice was 1500mg/kg[1]. LD50 of triterpenoids (IV-B) in mice by intraperitoneal injectionwas 50mg/kg[2]. The LD50 measured with Karber method of NutgrassGalingale Rhizome volatile oil by intraperitoneal injection was 0.297 ±0.019ml/kg[2].

 

[Pharmaceutical preparations]

1. Xiangfushugan Pill bupleurum root,green tangerine orange peel(stir-frying), tangerine peel, ledebouriella root,nutgrass flatsedge rhizome(processing with vinegar), orange fruit(stir-frying),aucklandia root, lindera root, pinellia tuber(stir-frying with ginger juice),poria, platycodon root, magnolia bark(stir-frying with ginger juice), purpleperilla, round cardamon seed, liquorice, hawthorn fruit(stir-frying), arecaseed(stir-frying), medicated leaven(stir-frying), rhubarb(stir-frying withwine), white peony root(stir-frying with wine), chinese angelica root, burreedtuber(stir-frying with vinegar), zedoary(prepared), scutellaria root,peppermint.
2. Pingganshuluo Pill
eagle wood, bilearisaema(stir-frying with wine), nutgrass flatsedge rhizome(stir-frying withvinegar), finger citron, bupleurum root, tangerine peel, aucklandia root,orange fruitremovingcorestir-frying with bran, sandalwood, linderaroot, green tangerine orange peel(stir-frying with vinegar), magnoliabark(stir-frying with ginger juice), amomum fruit, round cardamon seed,agastache, uncaria stem with hooks, batryticated silkwormstir-fryingwith bran, coptis root, tabasheer,hyacinth bletilla, cinnabar, anteplope’s horn powder,notopterygium root, ledebouriella root, dahurian angelica root, asarum herb,clematis root(stir-frying with wine), loranthus mulberry mistletoe, chaenomelesfruit, corydalis tuber(stir-frying with vinegar), frankincense(stir-frying withvinegar), myrrh(stir-frying with vinegar), chuanxiong rhizome, preparedrehmannia root, tortoise carapace and plastronheated with sandcalcining and quenching with vinegar, fleece flowerroot(stir-frying with soybean wine), ginseng, white atractylodes rhizomestir-fryingwith bran, poria, clove, chinese cassiabark, borneol, achyranthes root.
3. Shugan Zhitong Pill
bupleurum root,scutellaria root, chinese angelica root, white peony root, red peony root,chuanxiong rhizome, nutgrass flatsedge rhizome(processing with vinegar),sichuan chinaberry, corydalis tuber(processing with vinegar), peppermint,curcuma root, aucklandia root, white atractylodes rhizome(stir-frying),pinellia tuber(prepared), tangerine peel, fresh ginger, radishseed(stir-frying), liquorice.
4. Yueju Pill
nutgrassflatsedge rhizome(processing with vinegar), chuanxiong rhizome, capejasminefruit(stir-frying), atractylodes rhizome(stir-frying), medicatedleaven(stir-frying).
5. Yuejubaohe Pill
nutgrassflatsedge rhizome(processing with vinegar), aucklandia root, areca seed,medicated leavenstir-frying with bran,atractylodes rhizome, chuanxiong rhizome, capejasmine fruitstir-fryingwith ginger juice.
6. Jiaweizuojin Pill
coptisrootstir-frying with ginger juice,evodia fruitstir-frying with liquorice,bupleurum root, corydalis tuber(stir-frying with vinegar), aucklandia root,nutgrass flatsedge rhizome(stir-frying with vinegar), orange fruitremovingcorestir-frying with bran, curcuma root,tangerine peel, green tangerine orange peel(stir-frying with vinegar),scutellaria root, white peony root, chinese angelica root, liquorice.
7. Shugan Jianwei Pill
nutgrassflatsedge rhizome(processing with vinegar), bupleurum root(processing withvinegar), orange fruit, magnolia barkstir-frying withginger juice, areca seed, tangerine peel,green tangerine orange peel(stir-frying with vinegar), pharbitisseed(stir-frying), round cardamon seed, membrane of chickengizzard(stir-frying), sandalwood, citron fruit, white peony rootstir-fryingwith bran, corydalis tuber(stir-fryingwith vinegar), trogopterus dung(processing with vinegar).
8. Shugan Hewei Pill
OralLiquid):bupleurumroot, nutgrass flatsedge rhizome(processing with vinegar), finger citron,curcuma root, aucklandia root, lindera root, tangerine peel, arecaseed(stir-frying), radish seed, white peony root, white atractylodesrhizome(stir-frying), agastache, stir-fried liquorice.
9. Puchenhuayu Pill
nutgrassflatsedge rhizome(processing with vinegar), magnolia barkstir-fryingwith ginger juice, aucklandia root, orange fruitstir-fryingwith bran, sandalwood, tangerine peel,eagle wood, bupleurum root, green tangerine orange peel(processing withvinegar), turmeric, zedoary(processing with vinegar), clove, galangal rhizome,chinese cassia bark, round cardamon seed, amomum fruit, liquorice.
10. Tiaowei Shugan Pill
nutgrassflatsedge rhizome(stir-frying with vinegar), green tangerine orangepeel(stir-frying with vinegar), tangerine peel, orange fruitstir-fryingwith bran, aucklandia root, magnolia barkstir-fryingwith ginger juice, round cardamon seed, amomumfruit, bupleurum root(stir-frying with vinegar), turmeric, curcuma root,hawthorn fruit(stir-frying), liquorice.
11. Ping’an Pill
aucklandiaroot, nutgrass flatsedge rhizome(stir-frying with vinegar), corydalistuber(stir-frying with vinegar), green tangerine orange peel(stir-frying withvinegar), immature bitter orange, areca seed, eagle wood, hawthornfruit(stir-frying), medicated leavenstir-frying with bran,germinated barley(stir-frying), round cardamon seed,amomum fruit, clove, clove, nutmeg(roasting), white atractylodes rhizomestir-fryingwith bran, poria, fruit of caoguo,tangerine peel.
12. Qizhiweitong  Granule
Tablet): bupleurum root,nutgrass flatsedge rhizome(stir-frying), white peony root, corydalistuber(stir-frying), orange fruit, stir-fried liquorice.
13. Yangweining Capsule
nutgrassflatsedge rhizome(processing with vinegar), citron fruit, inula root, ginseng,round cardamon seed, katsumada galangal seed, chinese angelica root,pirnce’s-feather fruit(stir-frying), trogopterus dung, rhubarb, radishseed(stir-frying), stir-fried liquorice.
14. Chenxianghuaqi Pill
eagle wood,nutgrass flatsedge rhizome(processing with vinegar), aucklandia root, tangerinepeel, medicated leaven(stir-frying), germinated barley(stir-frying), agastache,amomum fruit, zedoary(processing with vinegar), liquorice.
15. Houtoujianweiling Capsule
Hericiumculture extractum, nutgrass flatsedge rhizome(prepared), white peony root,corydalis tuber(prepared), cuttlebone, stir-fried liquorice.
16. Chenxiangshuqi Pill
eagle wood, nutgrassflatsedge rhizome(stir-frying with vinegar), green tangerine orangepeel(stir-frying with vinegar), orange fruitremovingcorestir-frying with bran, bupleurum root,lindera root, aucklandia root, curcuma root, corydalis tuber(stir-frying withvinegar), turmeric, trogopterus dung(stir-frying with vinegar), magnoliabark(stir-frying with ginger juice), areca seed, fruit of caoguo, roundcardamon seed, amomum fruit, hawthorn fruit(stir-frying), liquorice.
17. Muxiangfenqi Pill
aucklandiaroot, nutgrass flatsedge rhizome(stir-frying with vinegar), magnoliabark(stir-frying with ginger juice), immature bitter orange, round cardamonseed, amomum fruit, agastache, nardostachys root, tangerine peel, sandalwood,areca seed, zedoary(stir-frying with vinegar), hawthorn fruit(stir-frying),clove, white atractylodes rhizomestir-frying with bran,liquorice.
18. Shixiangzhitong Pill
nutgrassflatsedge rhizome(stir-frying with vinegar), sandalwood, aucklandia root,clove, eagle wood, frankincense(stir-frying with vinegar), citron fruit, holybasil,  Lysimachia capillipes Hemsl,amomum fruit, magnolia bark(stir-frying with ginger juice), lindera root,cat-tail pollen, trogopterus dung(stir-frying with vinegar), corydalistuber(stir-frying with vinegar), galangal rhizome,rhubarb(steaming).
19. Muxiangshunqi Pill
aucklandiarootnutgrass flatsedge rhizome(processing with vinegar), magnoliabark(prepared), green tangerine orange peel(stir-frying), orangefruit(stir-frying), areca seed, tangerine peel, amomum fruit, atractylodesrhizome(stir-frying), liquorice.
20. Sunanshandutong Pill
curcumaroot, nutgrass flatsedge rhizome(prepared), white peony root, tangerine peel,aucklandia root, sichuan chinaberry, red sage root, frankincense(stir-frying),myrrh(stir-frying), draconis resin, liquorice.
21. Huazhenghuisheng Tablet
motherwort,safflower, gadfly, burreed tuber, (stir-frying with vinegar), leech, driedlacquer(calcining), Chinese asafetida, corydalis tuber(stir-frying withvinegar), chuanxiong rhizome, frankincense(stir-frying with vinegar),myrrh(stir-frying with vinegar), trogopterus dung(stir-frying with vinegar),cat-tail pollen(carbonizing), sappan wood, rosewood, rhubarb, musk, turmeric,nutgrass flatsedge rhizome(stir-frying with vinegar), bitter apricot kernel(stir-frying),purple perilla seed, common fennel fruit(stir-frying with salt water), clove,evodia fruitstir-frying with liquorice,chinese cassia bark, galangal rhizome, pricklyash peel(carbonizing), argyileaf(stir-frying), rhizoma anemones raddeanae, ginseng, chinese angelica root,white peony root, prepared rehmannia root, fresh water turtle shellglue.
22. Weide’an Tablet
whiteatractylodes rhizome, atractylodes rhizome, poria,  immature bitter orange, aucklandia root,magnolia bark, dried human placenta, liquorice, medicated leaven, germinatedbarley.ginger processed pinellia, tangerine peel(prepared), nutgrass flatsedgerhizome(prepared), chuanxiong rhizome, katsumada galangal seed, areca seed,radish seed, snakegourd fruit, oriental water plantain rhizom, scutellariaroot, phellodendron bark, all-grass of Indian kalimeris, dried ginger, seed ofJapanese calangal, cuttlebone.

 

[References]

Chemical composition

[1] Lin Xiaoshan, Wu Huiqin, Huang Fang, et al. Cyperus rotundus volatile oil extraction and GC/MS analysis. Journal of mass spectrometry, 2006,27 ( 1): 40

[2] State Administration of traditional Chinese materia medica editorial board. " " Chinese materia medica.Shanghai: Shanghai science and Technology Press, 1999,24:561 ( total 7702).

Pharmacological actions

[1]Ha JH, Lee KY, Choi HC, et al. Modulation of Radioligand Binging to the GABAA-benzodiazepine Receptor Complex by a New Component from Cyprus Rotundus[J].Biol Pharm Bull, 2002,25(1):128-130

[2]Zhu M,Luk HH,Fung HS,et al.Cytoprotective Effects of Cyperus rotundus against Ethanol Induced Gastric Ulceration in Rats[J].Phytotherapy Research,1997,11:392-394

[3]Nagulendran KR, Mahesh R,Hazeena BV. Preventive role of cyperus rotundus rhizomes extract on age associated changes in glucose and lipids [J].Pharmacologyonline,2007,2:318-325

[4]Christina AJM,Pillai PG,Chidambaranthan N,et al. Modulating effect of Cyperus rotundus Linn.on ethanol induced damage[EB/OL].http://www.cabi.org,2006-04-01/2009-04-08

[5]NishikantAR, Naresh JG. Antidiabetic activity of hydroethanol extract of Cyperus rotundus in alloxan induced diabetes in rats [J].Fitoterapia,2006,77:585-588

[6]YazdanParast R,Ardestani A.In vitro antioxidant and free ranical scavenging activity of Cyperus rotundus[J].Medfood,2007,10(4):667-674

[7]Uddin SJ,Mondal K, ShilPi JA,et al. Antidiarrhoeal activity of Cyperus rotudens[J].Fitoterapia,2006,77:134-136

[8]Yu HH,Lee DH,Seo SJ,et al.Anticariogenic properties of the extract of Cyperus rotundus[J].Am J Chin Med,2007,35(3):497-505

[9]Duarte MC, Fiqueira GM, Sartoratto A,et al.Anti-Candida activity of Brazillian medicinal plants [J]. Ethnopharnacol, 2005, 97(2):305-311

[10]Soumaya K, Mohamed BS, llef L,et al. In vitro evaluation of antibacterial, antioxidant, cytotoxic and apoptotic activities of the tubers infusion and extracts of Cyperus rotuduns[J].Bioresource Technology,2008,99:9004-9008

[11]Soumaya K,Ribai B,Ines B,et al.Investigation of extracts from(Tunisian)Cyperus rotundus as antimutagens and radical scavengers[J].Environmental Toxicology and Pharmaclogy,2005,20:478-484

Clinical trials:

[1] Song GuoHua. The clinical effect of “Xiang Mu decoction” in the treatment of 50 cases with flat warts[J].ShaanxiJournal of Traditional Chinese Medicine, 1986, 7(9): 412

[2] Zhong DeShen. The clinical effect of “Cu Zhi Qu You Liquid” in the treatment of 50 cases with flat wart[J]. The Chinese Journal of Dermatovenereology. 1993, 7(4): 252

[3] Shen Peng. The clinical effect of the flat verruca tincture in in the treatment of 45 cases with verruca plana[J]. Chinese Journal of Integrated Traditional and Western Medicine, 1993, 13(7): 416

[4] Deng FenXia, Zhang HuiJu. The clinical effect of the proved recipe on flat warts[J]. Journal of Chinese Medicinal Materials, 1993, 16(4):41

[5] Liu YaoChi.The clinical report of external application on flat warts[J].HebeiJournal of Traditional Chinese Medicine, 1985, (6): 15

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